Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Unani Medical Formulation

According to Unani’s medical philosophy, it is a disease in which the water ingested is excreted through the kidney immediately after it is ingested by a person without any metabolic change. Due to the hot temper of the kidneys, the water is absorbed from the bloodstream and passed into the urinary bladder.

Concept of Ziabetus (Diabetes) in the medical science of Unani

In Unani medicine, “Ziabetus” is the general term used for diabetes and “Ziabetus Shakari” for diabetes mellitus. It is mentioned in Unani literature like Al Qaanon (Canon of Medicine), Al Hawi Fit Tibb, Kamilus Sana’ah, etc. Arabic scholars have also mentioned it with terms like Atsha, Istisqa-e-Amnas, Mo’attisha, Dulaab. Dawwarah, Barkariyyah, Zalaqul kuliya, Ziyasqoos and Qaramees. Egyptians described clinical symptoms similar to diabetes nearly 3,000 years ago. The word “diabetes” is derived from the Greek word “diabanmo”, which means “to go through” or “to go through”. It is characterized by excessive urination (polyurea), excessive thirst (polydypse), increased appetite (polyphasia), the presence of sugar in the urine, gradual weight loss, etc.
According to Unani’s medical philosophy, it is a disease in which the water used is excreted by the kidney immediately after it is ingested by a person without any metabolic change. Due to the hot temper of the kidneys, the water is absorbed from the bloodstream and passed into the urinary bladder. The cause of the disease is based on Mizaji and Saakhti (structural) deviation. Any imbalance between Mizaj and Saakht leads to disease. Diabetes is one of the five leading causes of death. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is by nature a metabolic disorder complex that leads to either insulin insufficiency or insulin dysfunction. There are two types, type I diabetes (insulin dependent) and type II diabetes (non insulin dependent), which make up 90% of diabetics. According to December 2020 data, about 463 million adults in the age group 20 to 79 were living with diabetes; by 2045 it will be 700 million. The proportion of people with type 2 diabetes is increasing in most countries. 79% of adults with diabetes lived in low- and middle-income countries. It is a multifactorial disease that leads to several complications.

Classification of Ziabetus according to Unani Medical Concept

A-Depending on the presence or absence of sugar in the urine, it is divided into two types:
1.Ziabetus Sada or Ziabetus ghair Shakari (Diabetes insipidus), characterized by excessive thirst and urination with no sugar in the urine.
2.Ziabetus Shakari (Diabetes mellitus), characterized by excessive thirst and urination, but with sugar in the urine.
B – According to the khiffat-wa-shiddat (intensity) of the disease, it is also divided into two types:
1.Ziabetus hair (here referred to as diabetes with hot temperament): Here symptoms develop abruptly with severity such as excessive thirst (polydipsia), increased urination (polyuria), increased appetite (polyphasia), with the signs and symptoms of other Su-e – mizaj hair (hot congestion), like heat in the flanks and dryness of the body, caused by su-e-mizaj hair sada (excessive heat) of the kidneys.
2. Ziabetus Baarid (here referred to as diabetes with cold temperament): Here the symptoms appear gradually, with comparatively less severity such as less thirst and more frequent urine.

Causative factors

Unani physicians such as Ali ibn-e-Abbas Majoosi, Ibn-e-Sina (980-1037 AD), and Najeebud-Deen Samarqandi (died 1222 AD) describe some underlined etiopathogenesis of the disease while experiencing the disease in classical music describe texts. It has been suggested that the disease is related to the kidney.
“Your concept of kidney involvement in this disease contrasts with modern concepts that involve a functional disorder of the pancreas that causes diabetes.”
The most important etiological factors according to the Unani concept are the following:
• Maid Gurda (kidney weakness)
•? U? f al-Kulya (renal insufficiency)
• Su-e-Mizaj Haar Gurda (hot disorder in kidney temperament)
• Su-e-Mizaj Baarid Gurda (cold disorder in the temperament of the kidney)
• Ittesa-e-Gurda-wa-Majra-e-Baul (enlargement of the kidneys and urinary tract)
• Baroodat-e-Badan, Jigar-wa-Gurda (cold disorder of the temperament of the body, kidney and liver).

Management (Ilaj-bil-Dawa or pharmacotherapy.)

We recommend schedule single and compound drug formulations in those patients that are fairly safe, side effects free and holistic in nature. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to kidney disease, heart disease, blindness, burns, and even coma. Changes in diet and lifestyle can reduce the possibility and complications of the disease. There are many Unani drugs available for diseases of civilization, especially diabetes. Traditional or AYUSH drugs will be scanned again after their treatment. the WHO also recommended further investigation. For the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the individual drugs used in the formulation with reported antidiabetic and related beneficial properties are Kalonji (Nigella sativa), Gudmar booti (Gymnema sylvestre), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Elva ( Aloe vera), bitter melon (Momordica charantia), Babul (Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd, Jamun / Black plum (Eugenia jambolana Lam.), Methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum), Anar (Punica granatum) etc., with hypoglycemic activity , Inhibiting intestinal glucose uptake, stimulating insulin secretion, isolating human islets and increasing glucose-induced insulin. The phytomedicine used in Unani medicine represents an exciting opportunity for the development of new types of therapeutics for diabetes mellitus with a holistic approach Various phytochemical groups such as alkaloids, terpenes and phenol compounds, in addition to their hypoglycemic activity, these A Medicines also contain antioxidants, bitter substances, and other activities related to a disorder of carbohydrates to hydrate the metabolism. They are used in the form of decoctions, infusions, tablets, pills and powders.
The compound drug formulations used for the treatment of diabetes are Qurse Dhayabitus, Qurse Tabasheer, Qurse Marwareed, Qurse Gulnar, Qurs Tabasheer (all compound polyherbal unani formulations in the form of pills), Safoof Gilo (a compound polypherbal Unani formulation in of powder) , Dawaul Misk Talkh (a compound polyherbal Unani formulation in the form of semi-jelly) etc. etc.
Various popular formulations marketed are Dolabi tablets, Qurs Kushta baiza murgh, Qurs Kushta Zamarrud, Qurs Ziabetus, Qurs Tabashee (all compound polyherbal Unani formulations in the form of pills), Safoof Ziabtes (a compound polyherbal Unani formulation in powder form) ). it can also be used as an adjuvant with the conventional drug because of its diverse and related useful pharmacological activity in diabetes. (Be continued)

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